Recent Changes

Thursday, November 19

  1. page Chapter 5 The Cognitive Perspective edited ... The focus of Gestalt theory is the idea of "grouping", i.e., characteristics of stim…
    ...
    The focus of Gestalt theory is the idea of "grouping", i.e., characteristics of stimuli cause us to structure or interpret a visual field or problem in a certain way (Wertheimer, 1922). The primary factors that determine grouping are: (1) proximity - elements tend to be grouped together according to their nearness, (2) similarity - items similar in some respect tend to be grouped together, (3) closure - items are grouped together if they tend to complete some entity, and (4) simplicity - items will be organized into simple figures according to symmetry, regularity, and smoothness. These factors are called the laws of organization and are explained in the context of perception and problem-solving. http://tip.psychology.org/wertheim.html
    What do you see?
    {liar.gif}
    Do you see the word liar or a face?
    Learning Process Theory
    ...
    {Robert_Gagne.gif} Robert Gagne
    •Robert Gagne was born in 1916. He attended Yale University as well as Brown University. Gagne's extensive teaching resume include the following. He was a teacher at Connecticut College for Women and Pennsylvania State, Research Director for the United States Air Force, Consultant for the United States Department of Defense, and Professor at Florida State University.
    •http://coe.sdsu.edu
    Gagne believed that certain principles were needed in order to learn effectively. These are based on a hierarcy of learning:
    Provide instruction on a set of tasks that build toward the final task.
    ...
    Awards and Publications
    Gagne was cited in 1982 with the American Psychological Association Distinguished Scientific Award for the Applications of Psychology. The link below provides additional biographical information about Gagne, as well as a chronological listing of his publications. He was known as a very prolific writer of scientific articles.
    http://www.ibstpi.org/Products/pdf/appendix_A-C.pdf

    Information-Processing Theory
    ...
    **Memory system concept**- episodic memory, semantic memory, procedural memory.
    Levels of processing - three types of processing: sensory analysis, pattern recognition, and semantic association
    ...
    of connectionism. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connectionism)
    Global workspace model – http://bernardbaars.pbwiki.com/GWT%20Tutorial
    Multistage model – assumes information is processed in stages linked to memory systems: sensory register, short-term storage, working memory, and executive control processes. (http://www.dynamicflight.com/avcfibook/learning_process/1-9.gif This theory was presented by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atkinson-Shiffrin_memory_model
    ...
    A chunk varies in the amount of information it contains.
    Three chunks can be a phone number, the first chunk is three digit area code, the second is the second group of three numbers and the last is the grouping of four numbers.
    You can try a few of these games on your friends to see how good their short term memory is..
    Short term memory game that test the participant's chunking ability of random letters.
    http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/stm0.html
    This activity tests the participants knowledge of the penny and their schema of commonly used objects.
    http://www.exploratorium.edu/exhibits/common_cents/index.html

    Long-term memory
    In contrast with short-term/working memory, which is involved in the selection, initiation, and termination of processing information, long-term memory is a system for permanently storing, managing, and retrieving information for later use. Also unlike working memory, long-term memory has an unlimited capacity.http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=15299
    ...
    schema
    Summary: Memory
    {The_Brain.jpg}
    The brain is not a passive consumer of information....The stored memories and information-processing strategies of our cognitive system interact with the sensory information received from the environment, selectively attend to this information, relate it to memory, and actively construct meaning for it. (Wittrock, 1990, p. 348)
    http://www.alz.org/brain/03.asp

    How Memory Works
    Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience/Memory
    ...
    4. Encoding and construction of meaning
    ·mnemonic devices
    5.. Strategies to
    ·Summarizing
    ·Self-questioning
    ...
    10. Nonroutine Problems - Experience of the problem solver. Individual hasn't solved previously and for which he/she cannot generate a preexisting solution (Mayer, 1992, p.4).
    Major Themes:
    ...
    of metacognition. {metacognition.doc}
    II.

    II.
    Problem Solving-
    ...
    problem solving. {problem solving.doc}
    Problem Solving
    Problem Solving
    This document shows a comparison between the novice learner and the expert learner. It also compares it to the younger learner and the older learner. By no means does this comparison mean that the younger learner is a novice or that the older learner is an expert. However, it does show the differences and similarities. For example, I am a novice learner when it comes to working with technology, but I am older. I still have some problem solving skills of a older person, but I am a novice working with techology.
    Open the MSWord document below to see a graphic orgaziner with the main components of problem solving.
    {problem solving.doc}
    III. Application
    Principle of instruction focuses on four main points. First is teaching student strategies for constructing meaning. Second is structuring the framework of learning to facilitate the learner's attention. Lastly is to facilitate the encoding of the instruction. It is the instructor's goal to reach all learners using various tools and to make sure that their learning is in their long term memory.
    Open the MSWord document below to see a graphic organizer with the main components of problem solving.
    {Principles of Instruction.doc}
    Application to Theorists and Learning Theories:
    Application to Teachers:
    ...
    Students are prompted to build upon their problem solving strategies by using logic from the previous pages of the book. Teachers can facilitate a class discussion and include explicit teaching of metacognitive strategies by asking questions such as, "Why do you think that? Can you explain your thinking to us?"
    Click on the MSWord document below to see a lesson plan including class discussion questions.
    {Annos Hat Tricks.doc}
    Problem solving is a process of growth. As a novice working with wiki, I understand how the learning process is important to my ego. However, with my prior experience and by practicing, I have learned how to operate in the wiki system. That is the goal with a puzzle called Tower of Hanoi. We will begin simply and advance to a harder level. You can even have students work out a mathematical formula. It is the experts that are aware of the general goals of reading and studying the specific objectives of a particular task, are aware of using "fix-it" strategies when problems occur, using available resources, and are more flexible than that of novices (p. 233). However, the novice can learn these strategies from the experts. It is through metacognition strategies and by developing self-efficacy.
    So our goal is to work with a puzzle called Tower of Hanoi. First we will begin with three pieces to gain some experience. We will work in groups and some students will already have this experience and that will be a good thing for the novice. The second stage we will increase the number of pieces to challenge the experts and allow the novice to feel like they are a part of the solution. Good luck to all!
    http://www.mazeworks.com/hanoi/index.htm
    Here is another website with fun puzzles for all ages including the Tower of Hanoi.
    http://thinks.com/
    This fun video demonstrates the Tower of Hanoi puzzle. See if you can keep up!
    Our classrooms are set up for all learners. As teachers, we are facilitators and our focus is how to create an atmosphere of learning for everyone. For the learners, we need to teach them about metacognition, self-efficacy, achievement in goal orientation and how to use prior knowledge. Even though we have our roles in the classroom, we can and should interchange them when we can. By interchanging these roles, allows everyone in the classroom see that we are all learners wheather we are young or old. Also, all learners see that we can be novice learners in one area and in another area we can be experts. This allows for students to work through problems at the level he/she are ready to participate in and allows growth for all learners.

    (view changes)

Thursday, November 6

  1. page Chapter 7 Contemporary Theories edited Albert Bandura and Social Cognitive Theory ... Biographical Information Born in Alberta, …

    Albert Bandura and Social Cognitive Theory
    ...
    Biographical Information
    Born in Alberta, Canada in 1925
    Received undergraduate degree from University of British Columbia, and his Masters and Ph.D from University of Iowa
    ...
    Other published books include Social Learning and Personality Development (1963) Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis (1973), Social Learning Theory (1977) and Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control (1997), to name a few.
    Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
    ...
    reciprocal determinism)
    We are products of our environment, whether those influences are based on sex, race, social status, or other characteristics that help to mold who we are. Our behavior is influenced by those factors as well as by how are environment responds to our actions. If the behavior we choose is altered and we are given reinforcement for those actions, we may tend to repeat those behaviors. Of course, if the behaviors are viewed as normal and we are given reinforcement for such, then we will tend to perform the correct behaviors.
    Information is stored in representational systems, or easily stored memory codes, that are either verbal or visual
    ...
    The Components of Learning
    Bandura cites four major components of learning in the naturalistic setting: the behavioral model, the consequences of behavior, the learner's internal process, and self-efficacy.
    ...
    Behavioral Model
    Certain situations may influence the observer’s reactions to models: such as the type and amount of reinforcement in the presentation of behavior, the model’s attributes, the observer's characteristics, and the observer’s uncertainty about the outcome of the action.
    There are many concerns about the symbolic models found in media and how they affect the observer. The quantity of violence and sexual objectification of females are two of these concerns.
    ...
    Hollywood celebrity mishaps (public displays of the effects of substance abuse)
    Example of direct consequence
    ...
    sitting properly
    Example of self-administered consequence
    A person rewards their personal weight loss by going shopping for new clothes
    A student rewards themselves for finshing their homework early by givng themselves 30 extra minutes to read that night
    ...
    Internal Processes
    The

    The
    learner stores
    ...
    of behavior. TheThe components for
    ...
    are:
    Attention
    The model’s behavior must be relevant and attainable to the observer in order for new information to be learned.
    Complexity of the skill
    Arousal level of the observer
    Retention
    Responsible for behavioral symbolic coding (visual and verbal)
    Mental and motor rehearsal help these codes be retained in the memory of the learner
    ...
    "If I have the belief that I can do it, I shall surely acquire the capacity to do it even if I may not have it at the beginning." ~ Mahatma Gandhi ~
    "Self-confidence is the first requisite to great undertakings." ~ Samuel Johnson ~
    ...
    Ford ~
    Resources
    Grendler, Margaret E. Learning and Instruction: Theory Into Practice. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc., 2009.
    http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/self-efficacy.html
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SW9I7X9Wmqo
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pDtBz_1dkuk

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SW9I7X9Wmqo
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pDtBz_1dkuk

    //http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/bandurabio.html#bobo//////
    http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/efficacy.html
    (view changes)

Wednesday, March 12

  1. page Chapter 6 Social Context Theories edited ... •Constructivism: children should develop at their own rates and learn things for themselves •…
    ...
    •Constructivism: children should develop at their own rates and learn things for themselves
    •Behaviorism: emphasis on the stimulus and being able to control development through the appropriate conditioning
    ...
    Direct Teaching
    •Children do not learn by repeating and internalizing someone else’s perception and reasoning. Children need to construct meaning for themselves if it is to have lasting impact on their thinking.
    Sensory Motor Period
    ...
    Reflexive Stage
    (0-2 months)
    ...
    grasping, sucking.
    Primary Circular Reactions
    (2-4 months)
    ...
    Invention of New Means Through Mental Combination
    (18-24 months)
    ...
    Deferred imitation.
    The Preoperational Period
    (2-7 years)
    ...
    Speech becomes more social, less egocentric. The child has an intuitive grasp of logical concepts in some areas. However, there is still a tendency to focus attention on one aspect of an object while ignoring others. Concepts formed are crude and irreversible. Easy to believe in magical increase, decrease, disappearance. Reality not firm. Perceptions dominate judgment.
    In moral-ethical realm, the child is not able to show principles underlying best behavior. Rules of a game not develop, only uses simple do's and don'ts imposed by authority.
    ...
    Concrete Operations
    (7-11 years)
    Characteristic Behavior:
    ...
    Formal logical systems can be acquired. Can handle proportions, algebraic manipulation, other purely abstract processes. If a + b = x then a = x - b. If ma/ca = IQ = 1.00 then Ma = CA.
    Prepositional logic, as-if and if-then steps. Can use aids such as axioms to transcend human limits on comprehension.
    ...
    Institute, LLC
    {http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/images/piagetal.gif}
    {http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/images/piagetal.gif}
    =Piaget's Key Ideas=
    Adaptation
    (view changes)

Tuesday, January 21

Monday, November 11

  1. page Chapter 5 The Cognitive Perspective edited ... Human learning is both complex and diverse. It is an important causal factor in development an…
    ...
    Human learning is both complex and diverse. It is an important causal factor in development and is cumulative.
    Conditions of Learning is a theory that states there are several types of learning. Each type requires different types of instruction. Internal and external conditions are necessary for each type of learning.
    • http://tip.psychology.org
    http://coe.sdsu.edu

    http://coe.sdsu.edu

    {Robert_Gagne.gif} Robert Gagne
    •Robert Gagne was born in 1916. He attended Yale University as well as Brown University. Gagne's extensive teaching resume include the following. He was a teacher at Connecticut College for Women and Pennsylvania State, Research Director for the United States Air Force, Consultant for the United States Department of Defense, and Professor at Florida State University.
    ...
    Ensure each task is mastered before moving to the next.
    Sequence the tasks to ensure optimal success of the final task.
    ...
    Jersey. •
    Main Ideas of Gagne:
    Different types of behavior are acquired through learning.
    ...
    Attitudes
    Gagne believes there are five varieties of learning: Verbal Information, Intellectual Skills, Cognitive Strategies, Motor Skills, and Attitudes. Verbal Information has the greatest emphasis. It is not merely a repetition of words, but a learned capability where one understands that words have meaning. Intellectual skills are also important. These skills help people function within a society. They cannot be learned by hearing only--the person must actually respond to situations. Within these skills, people learn rules and problem-solving skills. Cognitive strategies refers to metacognition and the mental processes of people. It teachers how to learn, remember, and think. Cognitive strategies help manage verbal and intellectual skills. Motor skills are physical abilities that were never present before the learning took place. There are three phases to learn motor skills: Sequence the movements in the skills, Fit parts of the skill together and practice, Improving timing and smoothness. Attitude refers to the inferred states that influence behavior. A person's attitude makes certain actions more or less likely to occur. According to Gagne, each of the five varieties of learning include: Internal conditions and External conditions.
    ...
    New Jersey. ••••
    Nine Events or Phases of Learning
    {http://www.archimuse.com/mw2006/papers/leon/leon.fig07.jpg}
    According to Robert Gagne, there are nine events that activate processes needed for effective learning. Each event (called a "phase") is placed under a "stage of learning":
    Stage 1: Preparation1:Preparation for Learning Phase 1: Attending—Learner
    Phase 1:Attending—Learner
    is alerted
    ...
    stimulus
    Instruct by: gainby:gain attention through
    ...
    questioning
    Phase 2: Expectancy—Learn2:Expectancy—Learn about goals
    Instruct by: informby:inform of objectives
    Phase 3: Retrieval—Recalling3:Retrieval—Recalling
    Instruct by: recallby:recall prior knowledge
    ...
    skills
    Stage 2: Acquisition2:Acquisition and Performance
    Phase 4: Selective4:Selective perception of
    ...
    memory
    Instruct by: presentingby:presenting distinctive features
    Phase 5: Semantic5:Semantic Encoding—information from
    ...
    memory
    Instruct by: providingby:providing guidance
    Phase 6: Retrieval6:Retrieval and Responding—retrieve
    ...
    response
    Instruct by: elicitby:elicit performance
    Phase 7: Reinforcement—confirms7:Reinforcement—confirms goal
    Instruct by: providingby:providing feedback
    Stage 3: Transfer3:Transfer of Learning
    Phase 8: Cueing8:Cueing Retrieval—additional cues
    ...
    later
    Instruct by: assessingby:assessing the performance
    Phase 9: Generalizability—Enhances9:Generalizability—Enhances transfer of
    ...
    skills
    Instruct by: elicitby:elicit performace with
    This type of instruction needs careful planning to facilitate learning. The plans should include both short term and long term goals and carried out through a sequential approach, individually based on how each student learns.
    Gredler, M. (2009) Learning and instruction: Theory into practice. Pearson Education, Inc: New Jersey.
    ...
    Prior knowledge drives learning.
    Human memory
    ...
    collector of information. Beginninginformation.Beginning in the
    ...
    (Gredler, pp.189-195):
    State concept - identifying information as active or inactive
    **Memory system concept**- episodic memory, semantic memory, procedural memory.
    Levels of processing - three types of processing: sensory analysis, pattern recognition, and semantic association
    ...
    of neural representations. PDPrepresentations.PDP is the
    Global workspace model – http://bernardbaars.pbwiki.com/GWT%20Tutorial
    Multistage model – assumes information is processed in stages linked to memory systems: sensory register, short-term storage, working memory, and executive control processes. (http://www.dynamicflight.com/avcfibook/learning_process/1-9.gif This theory was presented by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atkinson-Shiffrin_memory_model
    {http://www.dynamicflight.com/avcfibook/learning_process/1-9.gif}
    Multistage Model (continued)
    Sensory Memory
    ...
    http://www.exploratorium.edu/exhibits/common_cents/index.html
    Long-term memory
    ...
    an unlimited capacity. http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=15299capacity.http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=15299
    Dual-code model: information is stored in verbal and nonverbal form.
    Verbal representations:
    Declarative knowledge –information that can be discussed or declared and is descriptive (Gredler, 197).
    ...
    (Gredler, 198).
    Two categories of knowledge:
    Tacit knowledge – “implicit and operates below the level of conscious awareness” (Gredler, 198)
    ...
    and consciousness
    metacognitive knowledge (discussed below)
    conceptual knowledge
    ...
    **http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Cognitive_Psychology_and_Cognitive_Neuroscience/Memory********
    Components of Learning
    ...
    to be learned. Thelearned.The processes include
    ...
    knowledge and attention. Attentionattention.Attention has a
    Encoding – acting on perceived information; a process that occurs in working memory.
    Application of information-processing on instruction
    Application of information-processing on instruction
    1. Enhance prior learner knowledge
    · Discourse·Discourse knowledge –
    ...
    text structure
    · Domain

    ·Domain
    knowledge –
    ...
    learner’s knowledge base. “Whenbase.“When learner knowledge
    2. Organize material to be learned
    · Advance·Advance organizers facilitate
    3. Facilitate attention
    · Pre-teaching·Pre-teaching activates prior
    ...
    be learned
    · Instructor

    ·Instructor
    should attend
    4. Encoding and construction of meaning
    · mnemonic·mnemonic devices
    5. Strategies to enhance understanding
    · Summarizing
    · Self-questioning
    · transfer
    ·Summarizing
    ·Self-questioning
    ·transfer
    of learning
    Disadvantages of the Information-Processing Theory:
    ...
    a theoretical foundation. Instead,foundation.Instead, the theory
    ...
    of theoretical perspectives. Alsoperspectives.Also it may
    Contribution to the classroom:
    The information processing theory identifies the importance of cognitive processes for learning.
    ...
    This fun video demonstrates the Tower of Hanoi puzzle. See if you can keep up!
    Our classrooms are set up for all learners. As teachers, we are facilitators and our focus is how to create an atmosphere of learning for everyone. For the learners, we need to teach them about metacognition, self-efficacy, achievement in goal orientation and how to use prior knowledge. Even though we have our roles in the classroom, we can and should interchange them when we can. By interchanging these roles, allows everyone in the classroom see that we are all learners wheather we are young or old. Also, all learners see that we can be novice learners in one area and in another area we can be experts. This allows for students to work through problems at the level he/she are ready to participate in and allows growth for all learners.

    (view changes)

Sunday, February 24

  1. page Chapter 6 Social Context Theories edited ... {piaget.gif} Jean Piaget ... their children. Cognitive Development Theory Children a…
    ...
    {piaget.gif}
    Jean Piaget
    ...
    their children.
    Cognitive Development Theory
    Children and adolescents continuously construct intelligence as they operate and discover their world.
    ...
    • Concrete Operational stage (7-11 years)
    • Formal Operational stage (11 years and older)
    ...
    progressively adequate.” -Jean-Jean Piaget
    Stages of Intellectual Development
    The stages of intellectual development formulated by Piaget appear to be related to major developments in brain growth. The human brain is not fully developed until late adolescence or in the case of males sometimes early adulthood. We often expect children to think like adults when they are not yet capable of doing so. It is important that parents know what to expect from their child as they develop and to be sure that the expectations they may have for their child at a given age are realistic.
    ...
    •A person in a given stage will be in the same stage for all developmental domains: mathematical reasoning, social skills, conversation skills, etc.
    •People develop through these stages regardless of culture.
    ...
    discovering himself.” -Jean-Jean Piaget
    The Nature of Intelligence According to Piaget
    •Intelligence is not static.
    ...
    •Children do not learn by repeating and internalizing someone else’s perception and reasoning. Children need to construct meaning for themselves if it is to have lasting impact on their thinking.
    Sensory Motor Period
    ...
    24 months)
    Developmental Stage
    ...
    Characteristic Behavior
    Reflexive Stage
    (0-2 months)
    Simple

    Simple
    reflex activity
    ...
    grasping, sucking.
    Primary Circular Reactions
    (2-4 months)
    Reflexive

    Reflexive
    behaviors occur
    ...
    fingers repetitively.
    Secondary Circular Reactions
    (4-8 months)
    Repetition

    Repetition
    of change
    ...
    the crib.
    Coordination of Secondary Reactions
    (8-12 months)
    Responses

    Responses
    become coordinated
    ...
    hidden object.
    Tertiary Circular Reactions
    (12-18 months)
    Discovery

    Discovery
    of new
    ...
    on it.
    Invention of New Means Through Mental Combination
    (18-24 months)
    Evidence

    Evidence
    of an
    ...
    Deferred imitation.
    The Preoperational Period
    (2-7 years)
    Developmental Stage
    ...
    Characteristic Behavior
    Preoperational Phase
    (2-4 years)
    Increased

    Increased
    use of
    ...
    of language.
    Intuitive Phase
    (4-7 years)
    Speech

    Speech
    becomes more
    ...
    dominate judgment.
    In

    In
    moral-ethical realm,
    ...
    by authority.
    Period of Concrete Operations
    (7-11 years)
    Characteristic Behavior:
    ...
    concrete problem-solving.
    Some reversibility now possible (quantities moved can be restored such as in arithmetic:
    ...
    3, etc.)
    Class

    Class
    logic-finding bases
    ...
    now available.
    Period of Formal Operations
    (11-15 years)
    Characteristic Behavior:
    ...
    concrete reality.
    Formal

    Formal
    logical systems
    ...
    = CA.
    Prepositional

    Prepositional
    logic, as-if
    ...
    on comprehension.
    Copyright © 1998- 2008 by Child Development Institute, LLC
    {http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/images/piagetal.gif}
    ...
    Assimilation
    Adapting to the world through assimilation and accommodation.
    ...
    it fit.
    Accommodation
    ...
    the other.
    Classification
    ...
    common features.
    Class Inclusion
    ...
    of dogs)
    Conservation
    ...
    look different.
    Decentration
    ...
    as appropriate.
    Egocentrism
    ...
    psychological development.
    Operation
    ...
    their heads.
    Schema (or scheme)
    ...
    go together.
    Stage
    ...
    not others
    Schemas
    •We cannot learn anything without a frame of reference. Therefore, we are born with basic, reflexive schemas: looking, grasping, sucking.
    ...
    •Stages of infant cognitive development
    •The components of logical thinking
    ...
    MOUNTAIN TEST
    {http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/mountains.gif}
    The preceding diagram is an example of Piaget's study "mountains study." This study was to test the difference between the perceptions of adults in comparison to children. He would place children in front of a plaster model of a mountain range. He would then ask the children to identify which picture represented their view of the mountain range. Younger children would pick one based on their perception; older children chose the picture that correctly reflected the mountain model.
    ...
    **http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm**
    **http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/piaget.html**
    **http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/piaget.html**
    For Further Reading: Books By Piaget
    ...
    in Children
    by Jean Piaget - 1953
    The Psychology of the Child
    by Jean Piaget, Bärbel Inhelder - 1969
    Psychology and Epistemology.
    by Jean PiagetJeanPiaget – 1971
    Logic and Psychology
    by Jean PiagetJeanPiaget
    Play, Dreams and Imitation in Childhood
    by Jean PiagetJeanPiaget
    The construction of reality in the child
    by Jean PiagetJeanPiaget
    Bibliography
    Berk, L.E. (2000). Child development (5th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
    ...
    Bibliography:
    Gallagher, C. (1999) Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky. Retreived online from: http://muskingum.edu/~psych/psycwwb/history/vygotsky.htm
    ...
    River, NJ.
    Kerr,

    Kerr,
    S. Why
    ...
    from: http://web.archive.org/web/20010411062816/members.home.net/vygotsky/kerr.htm
    Youtube Clip: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid+36813446619688577&hlen=
    ...
    Clip: http://www.davidsonfilms.com/
    Gibson
    Jean Lave
    (view changes)

Tuesday, October 25

  1. page Chapter 4 The Brain and Learning edited ... {http://ocean1025.files.wordpress.com/2007/05/girl-tree.jpg} The tree Splitting is characteri…
    ...
    {http://ocean1025.files.wordpress.com/2007/05/girl-tree.jpg} The tree
    Splitting is characterized by
    * focusingfocusing on details,
    putting things in order,
    fine-motor activities (such as handwriting, kirigami),
    and tuning into the lyrics in music.
    Lumping is characterized by
    * seeingseeing the big
    working with shapes,
    gross motor activities,
    (view changes)

Sunday, October 25

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